SIX PAINTERS AID THE OBJECT TRUSTEES HARRY F. GUGGENHEIM, PRESIDENT ALBERT E. THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT H. H. ARNASOS, MCE PRESIDENT. ART ADMINISTRATION THE COUNTESS CASTLE STEWART MRS, HARRY F. GUGGENHEIM A. CHAUNCEY XEWLIN MRS. HENRY OKRE MISS HILLA REBAY, DIRECTOR EMERITUS DANIEL CATTON RICH MICHAEL F.WETTACH MEDLEY G. B. WHELFLEY CARL ZIGROSSER SIX PAINTERS MD THE OBJECT LAWRENCE ALLOWAY © 1963. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number 63-15451 Printed in the United States of America The relationship between the good and the new in contemporary art is intriguing and baffling. The realization that art and in- vention are akin is balanced by the suspicion of eccentricity. Out of this conflict arises the question: Is it art? And the answer: Yes and no. Yes, it could be, since the expansion of artistic boundaries is inherent in the creative process. No, it need not be, for no mode in itself assures us of artistic validity. Lawrence Alloway, Curator of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, has conceived and prepared this exhibition and the accompanying catalogue. Reflections about the new in art are implicit in the exhibition's subject matter; so is the intention to indicate an historical background to the profile of the new. Thomas M. Messer, Director Aeknoicledgements I am grateful to Mr. Leo Castelli and Mr. Ivan Karp who have been indispensable with advice and assistance ; to Mr. Leon Mnuchin for suggesting the final title for this exhibition ; to Mr. Richard Bellamy, Mr. Steve Joy, and Mr. John Weber for their advice: to Mr. Gene Swenson who kindly allowed me to use his Robert Rauschenberg bib- liography, and for allowing me to see the manuscript of a forthcom- ing article on this artist. I would like to thank the following members of the Museum's cura- torial department for their extensive involvement and their impor- tant contributions: Dr. Louise Averill Svendsen, Associate Curator: Research Fellows Carol Fuerstein and Maurice Tuchman; and David Hayes who proposed an earlier form of this exhibition. L. A. SIX PAIXTERS AND THE OBJECT LAWRENCE ALLOWAY, CURATOR I The artists in this exhibition (all born between 1923 and 1933) have been persistently aligned, in group exhibitions and sur- vey articles, with object-makers, and two of the artists, Robert Rau- schenberg and Jim Dine, are themselves object-makers. In the pres- ent exhibition, however, all six artists are presented as painters; some of their works include moderate collage elements, but no three- dimensional appendages. The association of paintings and objects has tended to blur both media differentiations and the individuality of the artists concerned. The unique qualities of the separate work of art and of the artist responsible for it have tended to sink into an environmental melange, which in practice favors the object-makers, but not the painters. Object-makers, like the producers of happen- ings (often they are the same person), work towards the dissolution of formal boundaries 1 and sponsor paradoxical cross-overs between art and nature. However, the painter, committed to the surface of his canvas and to the process of translating objects into signs, does not have a wide-ranging freedom in which everything becomes art and art becomes anything. Because the painters have been identi- fied with the object-makers, under various slogans 2 , the definition of painting qua painting has been attached recently, more than it need have been, to abstract art. It is hoped, therefore, that by pre- senting six painters in this exhibition, they can be detached from an amorphous setting and, also, that the definition of painting can be extended to cope with the problem that their work presents. What these six artists have in common is the use of objects drawn from the communications network and the physical environ- ment of the city. Some of these objects are: flags, magazines and newspaper photographs, mass-produced objects, comic strips, ad- vertisements. Each artist selects his subject matter from what is known not only to himself, but also to others, before he begins work. Subject matter provides a common ground, either for intimacy or for dissent, as it does not in abstract or realist painting. When the subject matter consists of pre-existing conventional signs and com- mon images, however, we can properly speak of a known, shared subject matter. This approach to the city is. of course, the common ground between the object-makers and the painters. However, the translation of the urban object into a painted sign involves the paint- ers in very different procedures from the object-makers. Let us con- sider some of the different ways in which six painters make signs of their chosen objects. Jasper Johns" images are complete and whole: his maps are co-extensive with a known geography: his flags unfurled. His art- historical importance rests particularly on his early work in which he found a way to reconcile the flatness required of painting by all esthetic theories of the 20th century, with figurative references which the demand for flatness had tended to subdue or expunge. What he did was to filter objects through the formal requirements of a flat painting style. It was. of course, the Dadaists who had released the potential of use and meaning for art in common objects and signs, but the assimilation of such objects to a rigorous and delicate paint- ing standard was a new development. (Johns accomplished this, it should be remembered, in the mid-50s. when New York painters were open to far fewer alternatives than is now the case.^ The use of complete signs or objects involves the artists in a certain kind of spatial organization. Displays tend to be symmetri- cal, or. at least, orderly, with the area of the painting identified fully with the presented forms. Dine, like Johns in this respect, presents his signs and his objects, such as clothing or tools wholistically or sequentially (as in the series paintings in which color changes or other transformations take place I . \^ arhol. as a rule, presents his monolithic bottles or cans intact; where his images are incomplete or hazy, they are repeated, and the repetition of the basic unit intro- duces a regular order which the single image may not possess. Rauschenberg. in his recent paintings with silk-screen images printed from photographs, uses incomplete but legible images. Order is established not by using forms but by the recurrence of evocative fragments. The element of time in the use of popular art sources by art- ists is important, in view of the criticism that their work is exclu- sively and blindingly topical. In fact, however. Johns' flags are pre- Alaskan and pre-Hawaiian. though still legible as the stars-and- stripes. a stable sign. Dine"s objects, painted or literally present, are not conspicuously new. but rather functional objects without a fast rate of style-change: they are timeless like a hardware store. or a Sears-Roebuck catalogue, rather than smart and up-to-date like a slick magazine or an LP record-sleeve. Lichtenstein's refer- ences to comic strips have been accused, by those who only know art. of being too close to real comic strips. However, a group of professional comics artists (at National Periodical Publications!. judged them as definitely not mirror images of current comics style. The professionals regarded Lichtenstein's paintings derived from comic strips as strongly 'decorative" and backward-looking. Robert Rauschenberg"s images, the traces of original newsprint material of * ****** "ft 4( ****** w -* *%***teH %l^* :■ k.^ k^>- ^^ JL*r lur ^-- ' * *^^*'*j i ^C -^C -^C ^fC -^fC |* * ^L ^ ^ w w w ^^ ^ • r^ T7 ^ ^ ^ radar howl? and baseball pla>er~. etc.. are mi elaborately processed, by overlapping and corroding of contours and planes, tbat their topi- cality is opposed, though not cancelled, in a timeless blur. The gen- eral point to be drawn from these observations is that the presence of topical element- in a painting should not be supposed to consti- tute the total content of the work. In fact, the more sensitive one is to the original topical material, the more aware one becomes of the extent of its transformation by the artist, the spreading of the ephem- eral image in time. Rauschenberg's main work has been in what he calls the "combine-painting", a mixed media art including objects, but he has recently painted a series of black and white paintings containing silk-screen images. He explained to Gene Swenson : "Could I deal with images in an oil painting as I had dealt with them in the trans- ier drawings and the lithographs? I had been working so extensively on sculpture: I was ready to try substituting the image, by means of the photographic silk-screen, for objects* 3 . Here is a clear state- ment of the process of transformation that any object must undergo in order to function as a sign in a painting. Rauschenberg's paintings are partly the reproduction of legible and learnable images and partly the traces of a physical process of work (the pressure and density of the paint, often modifying very strongly the constituent silk-screen image i . The custom of quotation is not a new one. though Lichten- stein's use of popular sources, and his preservation of the original's stylistic character, has disconcerted critics. Sir Joshua Reynolds ob- served: "It is generally allowed, that no man need be ashamed of copying the ancients : their works are considered as a magazine of common property, always open to the public, whence every man has a right to take what material he pleases* 4 . Popular art has replaced classical art as 'common property", but the point of such borrowings has not changed much. There is still ilia legible reference to some- body else's work and I 2 i the transformation of the quotation, before one's eyes, by a new. personal use. Lichtenstein fulfils both func- tions, frankly declaring his sources and. at the same moment, setting them in a new context. Not only does he make numerous formal ad- justments in his borrowings, there is. also, the spectacular increase in scale, whereby very small sources become monumental. Head— I elloic and Black, for example, was a thumbnail sketch from the yel- low pages of the Manhattan phone book: Flatten. Sand Fleas is iso- lated and blown up from one episode in a war comic I about the education of a rookie by a tough sergeant i . Lichenstein's images spring into largeness: part of their impact is the dilation of minute originals, their sequential flow dramatically arrested. Giantism, the enlargement of objects and images, characterises his work, as it does others". Rosenquist blows up fragmentary but solid forms to bill- board scale: Dine's clothing is often on the scale of a Times Square advertisement, or a Neanderthal wardrobe. '*&&*■■ 1 Robert Rauschenberg OVERCAST I. 1962. Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. r-r-r > PALETTE. 1960-611 Collection Franklin Konigsberg. New York WORKS IN THE EXHIBITION Lenders Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Carpenter, Jr., New Canaan, Connecticut, Franklin Konigsberg, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Albert A. List, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Leon Mnuchin, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Morton G. Neumann, Chicago, Myron Orlofsky, White Plains, New York, Stanley Posthorn, New York, Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena, California, Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Scull, New York, Mrs. Ileana Sonnabend, Paris, Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, Ithaca, New York; Leo Castelli Gallery, Green Gallery, Stable Gallery, all in New York; Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles. JIM DEVE FOUR PICTURES OF PICABIA. 1960. Oil on canvas. 4 sections, 45% x 13%" each. Collection Stanley Posthorn, New York. A 1935 PALETTE. 1960-1961. Oil on plywood, 72 x 48". Collection Franklin Konigsberg, New York. COAT. 1961. OU and collage on canvas, 80 x 60%". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Carpenter, Jr., New Canaan, Connecticut ^ TATTOO. 1961. Oil on canvas, 60% x 48". Private Collect!: . rk. T T THE PLANT BECOMES A FAN. 1961-1963. Charcoal on canvas, 60 x 144% " (4 sections) . Lent by the artist. JASPER JOHNS TANGO. 1955. Encaustic with newspaper on canvas and music box, 43 x 56^4". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New "iork. GREEN TARGET. 1955. Encaustic on newspaper on canvas, 60 Vis x 60%". Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Richard S. Zeisler Fund. WHITE FLAG. 1955-1958. Encaustic and newspaper on canvas, 52% x 78%". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York. NUMBERS LN COLOR. 1953-1959. Encaustic and newspaper on canvas,67x49 5 i". Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo. N. Y, Gift of Seymour H. Knox. THREE FLAGS. 1958. Encaustic on canvas, 30% x 45%". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New \ork\ FALSE START. 1959. Oil on canvas, 67* x 53". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Scull, New York, ROY LICHTE>STEEV I CAN SEE THE WHOLE ROOM AND THERE'S NO ONE LN IT. 1961. Oil on canvas. 48= s x 48 %". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine. New York. ICE CREAM SODA. 1962. Oil on canvas, 64 x 32V4". ion Myron Orlofsky, White Plains. New York. HEAD-YELLOW AND BLACK. 1962. Oil on canvas. 48 x 48". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York LI\ E AMMO. 1962. Oil on canvas (group of 6 sections) . on 1, 68 x 56" ; Section 2, 68 x 36". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Morton G. Neumann, Chicago. Section 5, 68 x 68". Lent by Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, FEMME AU CHAPEAU. 1962. Oil on canvas, 68 x 56". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York. FLATTEN, SAND FLEAS. 1962. Oil on canvas, 34 x 44". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leon A. Mnuchin, New York. ROBERT RAUSCHEjVBERG UNTITLED. 1953-1954. Combine-painting on canvas, 79% x 96%" (3 sections). Collection Mrs. Ileana Sonnabend, Paris. FACTUM II. 1957. Combine-painting on canvas, 61% x 35% ". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Morton G. Neumann, Chicago. MIGRATION. 1959. Combine-painting on canvas, 50 x 40%". Collection Andrew Dickson White Museum of Art, Ithaca, New York. OVERCAST I. 1962. Oil and silk screen ink on canvas, 96% x 72". Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. OVERCAST II. 1962. Oil and silk screen ink on canvas, 94% x 72". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Albert A. List, New York. JUNCTION. 1963. Oil, aluminum and silk screen ink on canvas, 45% x 61%". Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery, New York. JAMES ROSENQUIST ZONE. 1960. Oil on canvas, 95 x 96" (2 sections). Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York. THE LINES WERE ETCHED DEEPLY ON HER FACE. 1962. Oil on canvas, 66% x 78%". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Scull, New York. FOUR 1949 GUYS. 1962. Oil on canvas, 60 x 48%". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Scull, New York. MAYFAIR. 1962. Oil on canvas, 42 x 70". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Leon A. Mnuchin, New York. UNTITLED. 1962. Oil on canvas, 84 x 72". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Rowan, Pasadena. ANDY WARHOL DICK TRACY. 1960. Casein on canvas, 70% x 52%". Lent by the artist. BEFORE AND AFTER, 3. 1962. Liquitex on canvas, 72% x 99%". Lent by Stable Gallery, New York. MARILYN. 1962. Liquitex and silk screen ink, 80% x 113%" (2 sections). Collection Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine, New York. THE MEN IN HER LIFE. 1962. Liquitex and silk screen ink, 81% x 81%". Lent by Stable Gallery, New York. SILVER DISASTER, NO. 6. 1963. Liquitex and silk screen ink, 42 x 60". Lent by Stable Gallery, New York. Roy Lichtenstein ICE CREAM SODA. 1962. Collection Myron Orlofsky, White Plains, New York. II 'There is some point to Shaftesbury's remark that the inven- tion of prints was to English culture during the 18th century what the invention of printing had been earlier to the entire Republic of letters', observed Jean H. Hagstrum/ Prints familiarized artists with a body of art works that could be assimilated into general experi- ence, in the absence of the originals. These repeatable images, which dispensed with the notion that uniqueness was essential to art, reached a large audience indiscriminately. Prints are the beginning of the mass media explosion. The use of prints accelerated until, by the late 19th century, mass-produced prints, sometimes by anony- mous artists, provided an alternate tradition to the arts of painting and sculpture. Anton Ridder van Rappard is remembered as the friend who told T an Gogh that The Potato Eaters was a terrible mis- take, but V an Gogb/s letters to him, written in the early 1880s 5 . have a recurring theme of the greatest interest. There is constant discus- sion of popular graphic art as something equal to fine art, and pos- sibly better. Of a drawing in Punch magazine of the Tzar on his death bed. "S an Gogh wrote: "If such a thing is possible, it has even more sentiment than Holbein's T otentanz . And in another letter he listed admired subjects in illustrated magazines: The Foundling. A Queue in Paris During the Seige, The Girl I Lett Behind Me, Wan- ing of the Honeymoon, Labourer's Meeting. Lifeboat, Sunday Eve- ning at Sea. Mormon Tabernacle, Cabin of Emigrant's Ship. This list of subjects shows that popular art had characteristics of its own with sufficient vitality to form a tradition of its own, different from the main line in the fine arts. The late paintings of Georges Seurat, as Robert Herbert has pointed out, with their flat linearism and show business subjects l cabaret, circus ■ are influenced by the post- ers of Jules Cheref. The artists' sensitivity to popular art was wide- spread in the 19th century, and one other example might be cited. the art critic Champfleury, who recorded: T published in 1850, in the National, a preliminary fragment on folk art. It was concerned with barroom decoration imagerie de cabaret, faience, carica- ture"'. Here, as in the cases of Van Gogh and Seurat. popular art is assigned its own traditions, in the urban mass of the population, and linked to topical events. The use of popular art sources by artists has been wide- spread since the 18th century, though not much charted. Couxbet, who seems to have used popular engravings in some of his paintings 5 , handled form with an abrupt, schematic quality which, to his con- temporaries eyes, "'••"as polemically naive. In Couxbet, popular art was equated with a pastoral society, with, that is to say. Folk Art traditions. This connection led logically to nostalgic and exotic primitivism, in Gauguin s work in both Brittany and Polynesia, instance, and thence to numerous 20th century revival styles. How- ever, another current identified popular art neither with the products of unchanging peasants nor with unspoiled natives, but with the ver- nacular art of the citv. James Rosenquist FOUR 1949 GUYS. 1962. Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Scull, Netv York. Andy Warhol BEFORE AND AFTER, 3. 1962. Lent by Stable Gallery, New York. As in the cases of \ an Gogh and Seurat. the use of popular art sources was Linked with acceptance of the city as a subject for art. In the 20th century there is a consistent connection between the painting of specifically modern subjects and themes and an in- terest in mass-produced and popular art. Purism, for example, se- lected as objects for still -life "those which are Like extensions of man's limbs, and thus of an extreme intimacy, and banality - that makes them barely exist as objects of interest in themselves" 1 '. Leger. who was associated closely with the Purists, argued for the equality of mass-produced objects and nature: 'Every object, created or man- ufactured, may carry in itself an intrinsic beauty- just Like alL phe- nomena of the natural order" 1 ". As a result of his conviction that "beauty is everywhere". Leger not only praised mass-produced objects but extended his esthetic to take in popular art as welL. In a passage of praise for window-dressing, in the 20s still a fresh and expanding form of display, he declared: "The street has become a permanent exhibition of ever-growing importance"". He criticised the Renais- sance for leaving us with 'its ecstasy for the fine subject" and its 'hideous hypertrophy of the individual". These themes survive today in the use of Coca Cola bottles and Campbell soup cans by Warhol, or in Lichtenstein's detached depiction of common objects. Against the conspicuous assertion of individualism, by paint handling, for ex- ample. Warhol and Lichtenstein collaborate with usually unknown') popular artists. Lichtenstein's collaborators are comic strip artists or commercial artists and Warhol collaborates with Campbell's packaging department or. in his portraits of Coca Cola bottles, with Raymond Loewy Associates. The artist deliberately confirms his in- dividualism to a pre-existing image (which he radically transforms behind a mask of subservience > . Another aspect of popular imagery has to do not with ob- jects but with the folklore of heroes and heroines, that spectacular parade of slowly or quickly disappearing public figures. Surrealism. with its writers sensitive to the potential of fantasy in common events, explored this area. For instance. Robert Desnos wrote about French popuiar novels and singled out for comment Fantomas. 'an enor- mously important factor in Parisian mythology and oneirology. The hero's elegant appearance and the bloody dagger he holds in his hand upset the generally accepted idea, and puts an end to the no- tion of a lamentable, moth-eaten assassin, clothed in rags' 1 . Re- cently there have been various paintings of Marilyn Monroe", which have been interpreted as elegies for somebody trapped in the mass media. In fact, pretentious explanations of this kind are part of the unfamiliarity writers feel at the presence of popular art sources or references in the context of fine art. The conjunction of the once- separated areas of high and popular culture has embarrassed writ- ers whose fortunes and status are identified with the care of hish art 10 . On the contrary, mass media figures are relished for their physical grandeur, for their pervasiveness (as in Warhol's diptych), and for the drama of common intimacy they offer their consumers. The attitude towards the stars is more like that expressed by Pierre de Massot, in an article on the French music hall, in which he listed, "The legs of Mistinguett, the breasts of Spinelly, the buttocks of Parisys, the little stomach of Pepee constitute, with Marcel Du- champ's Nude Descending the Staircase, the only "poetic" realm in which I can live' 16 . Kaprow, Allan. " "Happenings' in the INew York Scene" Art News, New York, vol". 60, May, 1961, p. 36-39, 58-62. '"Pop Art": term coined originally to refer to the mass media (for popular art) , but loosely extended to apply to fine art with popular art references (see Lawrence Alloway, "Pop Art Since 1949", The Listener, London, vol. 67, no. 1761, December 27, 1962, p. 1085) ; "New Realism": term coined originally for a European group of artists, but lately applied to American art (see Bibliography no. 1) ; "Sign Painters": (see Bibliography no. 8) ; "American Dream Painting": (see Bibliography no. 18). However, the imagery is not dream-like, nor is it exclusively American. The imagery of these artists is a fact of global industrialism, a real part of life and, in no sense, a dream. "Neo Dada" : The term over-emphasizes the connections with Dada that do exist, but the comparison is usually vitiated by inadequate definitions of what the original Europeans were in fact doing. Swenson, G. R. "Rauschenberg Paints a Picture", Art News, 1963 (to be published) . Wark, Robert R., ed. Sir Joshua Reynolds, Discourses on Art, San Marino, California, Huntington Library, 1959, Discourse VI, p. 107. Hagstrum, Jean H. The Sister Arts, Chicago, 1958. Van Gogh, Vincent. Letters to Anton Ridder van Rappard, London, 1936. Herbert, Robert. "Seurat and Jules Cheret", Art Bulletin, New York, vol. 40, no. 2, June, 1958, p. 156-158. Quoted by Stanley Meltzoff, "The Revival of the Le Nains", Art Bulletin, New York, vol. 24, no. 3, September, 1942, p. 278. Schapiro, Meyer. "Courbet and Popular Imagery", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, London, vol. 4, 1940-1941. Ozenfant, Amedee, and Le Corbusier. La Peinture Moderne, Paris, 1925. Leger, Fernand. "The Esthetics of the Machine: Manufactured Objects, Artisan, and Artist", The Little Review, New - York, Paris, vol. 9, no. 3, 1923, p. 45-49, vol. 9, no. 4, 1923-1924. p. 55-58. Ibid. Desnos, Robert. '"Imagerie Moderne". Documents, vol. 7, Paris, 1929, p. 377. "The Growing Cult of Marilvn", Life, vol. 54, no. 4, January 24, 1963. p. 89-91. For the historical roots of the high art/popular art dialogue, debate, or quarrel, see Lowenthal, Leo, Literature, Popular Culture, and Society, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1961, especially chapters 2 and 3. De Massot. Pierre. "Theatre and Music-Hall: to Erik Satie", The Little Review, vol. 9, no. 4, Paris, 1923-1924, p. 6. SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY Not every review has been recorded. References to articles on areas relat- able to the artists and paintings in this exhibition (happenings, junk cul- ture, assemblage, etc.) are given only when relevant to the theme of this exhibition. CE.XERAL Exhibition Catalogues and Reviews 1. Ashbery, John; Restany, Pierre; Janis, Sidney, New Realists, New York, Sidney Janis Gallery, 1962. 2. T. B. H. [Thomas B. Hess]. "New Realists at Janis Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 61, December, 1962, p. 12. 3. S. T. [Sidney Tillim]. "The New Realists at Janis Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 37, December, 1962, p. 43-44. 4. Nordland, Gerald. My Country 'Tis of Thee, Los Angeles, Dwan Gallery, 1962. Articles 5. "Art: The Slice of Cake School", Time, New York, May 11, 1962. 6. "Something New is Cooking", Life, New York, vol. 52, no. 24, June 15, 1962, p. 115-120. 7. Kozlofl, Max. " 'Pop' Culture, Metaphysical Disgust and the New Vul- garians", Art International, Zurich, vol. 6, no. 2, February, 1962. 8. Swenson, G. R. "The New American 'Sign' Painters", Art News, New York, vol. 61, September, 1962, p. 44-47, 60-62. 9. Seckler, Dorothy Gees. "Folklore of the Banal", Art in America, New York, vol. 50, no. 4, 1962, p. 57-61. 10. Coplans, John. "The New Painting of Common Objects, and Chronology: The Common Object and Art", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. 1, no. 6, 1962, p. 26-29. 11. A. [Bruno Alfieri]. "USA: Towards the End of 'Abstract' Painting?" Metro, Milan, no. 4-5 , p. 4-13. 12. Wescher, Herta. "Die 'Neuen Realisten' und Hire Vorlaufer", Werk, Win- terthur, vol. 49, no. 8, August, 1962, p. 291-300. 13. Langsner, Jules. "Los Angeles Letter, September, 1962", Art International, Zurich, vol. 6, no. 9, November, 1962, p. 49. 14. Rosenberg, Harold. "The Art Galleries: The Game of Illusion", New Yorker, New York, November 24, 1962, p. 161-167. 15. Sorrentino, Gilbert. "Kitsch into 'Art': The New Realism", Kulcher, New r York, vol. 2, no. 8, 1962, p. 10-23. 16. Rose, Barbara. "Dada Then and Now", Art International, Zurich, vol. 7, no. 1, January, 1963, p. 23-28. 17. Restany, Pierre. "Le Nouveau Realisme a la Conquete de New York", Art International, Zurich, vol. 7, no. 1, January, 1963, p. 29-36. 18. Rudikoff, Sonya. "New Realists in New York", Art International, Zurich, vol. 7, no. 1, January, 1963, p. 39-41. 19. Johnson, Ellen H. "The Living Object", Art International, Zurich, vol. 7, no. 1, January, 1963, p. 42-45. JIM D1\E Statements 20. Environments, Situations, Places, New York, Martha Jackson Gallery. 1961. 21. Art 1963 — A New Vocabulary, Philadelphia. Arts Council of the YM/ YWHA, October 25-November 7, 1962. Exhibition Catalogues and Reviews 22. A. V. [Anita Ventura]. "Exhibition at Judson Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 34, December, 1959, p. 59. 23. A. V. [Anita Ventura]. "Exhibition at Reuben Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 34, April, 1960, p. 73. 24. Johnston, Jill. "Car Crash", The Village Voice, New York, November 10, 1960. 25. V. P. [Valerie Petersen]. "Exhibition at Reuben Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 59, December, 1960, p. 16-17. 26. J. J. "Exhibition at Judson Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 59, Febru- ary, 1961, p. 15. 27. V. P. [Valerie Petersen]. "Varieties at Reuben", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 59, February, 1961, p. 16-17. 28. Alloway, Lawrence. Jim Dine— New Paintings, New "York, Martha Jackson Gallery, 1962. 29. "The Smiling Workman", Time, New York, February' 2, 1962. 30. J. J. [Jill Johnston]. "Exhibition at Jackson Gallery", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 60, January, 1962, p. 12-13. 31. Jouffroy, Alain. Jim Dine, Milan, Galleria delFAriete, 1962. 32. Fahlstrom, Oyvind. Jim Dine, New York, Sidney Janis Gallery, 1963. JASPER JOHXS Statements 33. 16 Americans, New ^ork, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959. p. 22. 34. Scrap, New York. December 23. 1960. no. 2. p. 4. Reviews 35. F. P. [Fairfield Porter]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 56, January, 1958, p. 20. 36. R. R. "First one-man show at Castelli Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 32, January, 1958, p. 54-55. 37. Washburn. Gordon B. "Pittsburgh bicentennial international: the prize awards", Carnegie Magazine, Pittsburgh, vol. 32, December. 1958, p. 331. 38. "Jasper Johns and Leonor Fini at the Galerie Rive Droite", Apollo, Lon- don, vol. 69, March, 1959, p. 90. 39. Schneider. Pierre. "Art News from Paris". Art News, New York, vol. 58, March, 1959, p. 48. 40. I. H. S. [Irving H. Sandler]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 58, February. 1960, p. 15. 41. D. J. [Donald Judd]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallerv", Arts. New York, vol. 34, March, 1960, p. 57-58. 42. I. H. S. [Irving H. Sandler]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery". Art News, New York, vol. 60, March, 1961, p. 15. 43. S. T. [Sidney Tillim]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery". Arts, New York, vol. 35, March. 1961. p. 51-52. \ \. Sandler. I. H. "New York Letter". Art International. Zurich, vol. 5, no. 3, April 5, 1961, p. 41. 45. Ashbery, John. "Paris Summer Notes", Art International, Zurich, vol. 5, no. 8, October 20, 1961, p. 91. 46. Ashbery, John. "Paris Notes", Art International, Ziirich, vol. 6, no. 10, December 20, 1962, p. 51. Articles 47. Rosenblum, Robert. "Jasper Johns", Art International, Zurich, vol. 4, no. 7, September 25, 1960, p. 75-77. 48. Restany, Pierre. "Jasper Johns and the metaphysic of the commonplace", Cimaise, Paris, no. 55, September-October, 1961, p. 90-97. 49. Rosenblum, Robert. "Les oeuvres recentes de Jasper Johns", XX Siecle, Paris, no. 24, February, 1962, p. 19-20. 50. Steinberg, Leo. "Contemporary Art and the Plight of its Public", Harpers, New York, vol. 224, no. 1342, March, 1962, p. 31-39. 51. Steinberg, Leo. "Jasper Johns", Metro, Milan, no. 4-5,  p. 80-109. 52. Greenberg, Clement. "After Abstract Expressionism", Art International, Ziirich, vol. 6, no. 8, October 25, 1962, p. 25. ROY I.H'IITK»TKI\ Reviews 53. J. F. [James Fitzsimmons]. "First New York Show, Heller Gallery", Art Digest, New York, vol. 26, January 1, 1952, p. 20. 54. F. P. [Fairfield Porter]. "Exhibition at Heller's", Art News, New York, vol. 50, January, 1952, p. 67. 55. S. G. "Exhibition at Heller Gallery", Art Digest, New York, vol. 27, Feb- ruary 1, 1953, p. 18. 56. F. P. [Fairfield Porter]. "Exhibition of oils and watercolors at Heller's", Art News, New York, vol. 51, February, 1953, p. 74. 57. R. R. [Robert Rosenblum]. "Exhibition of paintings, Heller Gallery", Art Digest, New York, vol. 29, February 15, 1954, p. 22. 58. F. P. [Fairfield Porter]. "Lichtenstein's adult primer; exhibition at Heller Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 58, March, 1954, p. 18, 63. 59. M. S. [Martica Sawin]. "Exhibition at Heller Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 31, January, 1957, p. 52. 60. J. S. [James Schuyler]. "Exhibition of oils at Heller Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 55, February, 1957, p. 12. 61. H. D. M. [Helen De Mott]. "Exhibition at Riley", Arts, New York, vol. 33, June, 1959, p. 66. 62. D. J. [Donald Judd]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 36, April, 1962, p. 52. 63. N. E. [Natalie Edgar]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 61, March, 1962, p. 14. ROBERT RAISCHEXBERG Statements 64. "Is Today's Artist with or Against the Past?", Art News, New York, June, 1958, p. 46. 65. 16 Americans, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, p. 58, [ex- hibition catalogue]. 66. "Un 'Misfit' de la Peinture New Yorkaise se Confesse", Arts, Paris, May 1-16, 1961. 67. Blesh, Rudi and Janis, Harriet. Collage, Philadelphia, Chilton, 1962, p. 265-267. Exhibition Catalogues and Reviews 68. D. S. [Dorothy Seckler]. "Exhibition at Betty Parsons Gallery". Art News, New York, vol. 50. May. 1951. p. 59. 69. D. A. [Dure Ashton]. "Exhibition at Stable Gallery". Art Digest. New \ork, vol. 27. September. 1953. p. 21. 70. F. OH. [Frank O'Hara]. "Exhibition at Egan Gallery". Art News, New \ork, vol. 53. January. 1955. p. 47. 71. Steinberg. Leo. "Month in Review". Arts. New \ork. vol. 30. Januarv. 1956. p. 46. 72. J. A. [John Ashbery]. "Five Shows out of the Ordinary". Art Xeics, New York. vol. 57. March. 1958. p. 40. 73. R. R. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallerv". Arts, New York. vol. 32. March. 1958. p. 61. 74. Kramer. Hilton. "Month in Review". Arts. New Y:>rk. vol. 33. February. 1959, p. 48. 75. I. H. S. [Irving H. Sandler]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery"'. Art News, New York vol 59. April 1960. p. 14. 76. S. T. [Sidney Fillim], "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery "". Arts, New Y:>rk, vol. 34, May, 1960. p. 58. 77. L. C. [Lawrence Campbell]. "Exhibition of Drawings at Castelli Gallery". Art News, New "York, vol. 59. January. 1961. p. 3. 78. M. S. [Martica Savin]. "Exhibition of Drawings at Castelli Gallery"'. Arts, New liork. vol. 35. January. 1961, p. 56. 79. Hess. Thomas B. "Collage as an Historical Method". Art News, New "iork, vol. 60, November, 1961, p. 31. 80. J. K. [Jack Kroll]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery'". Art News, New York. vol. 60. December, 1961, p. 12. 81. Arnason. H. H. American Abstract Expressionists and Imagists, New Y>rk. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 1961. 82. Dorfles. Gillo. Rauschenberg. Milan. Galleria delTAriete, October, 1961. 83. Seitz. William C. Art of Assemblage, New Y:>rk. The Museum of Modern Art. 1961. p. 23. 25, 72. 74. 89. 84. D. J. [Donald Judd]. "Exhibition at Castelli Gallery*", Arts, New York, voL 36. January. 1962, p. 39. 85. Melville. Robert. "American Yanguard Exhibition". Architectural Revieic, Westminster, vol. 131. May. 1962. 86. Nordland. Gerald. "Neo-Dada goes West"'. Arts, New Y:>rk. May- June. 1962, p. 102. 87. Dylaby ' Dvnamic Laboratory > . Amsterdam. Stedelijk Museum. August, 1962.' Artieles 88. Hess. Thomas B. "U.S. Painting: Some Recent Directions"'. Art Xeics Annual, New "iork. vol. 25, 1956. p. 76. 89. Legrand. Francine Claire. "La Peinture et la Sculpture au defi "'. Quad- rum, Brussels, no. 7, 1959, p. 23. 90. Myers. David. "Robert Rauschenberg" in B. H. Friedman, ed.. School of Aeir iork: Some lounger Artists, New \ork. Grove, 1959. p. 54-59. 91. Hamilton, George Heard. "Painting in Contemporary America", Burling- ton Magazine, London, vol. 102. no. 686. May. 1960. p. 192. 92. Ashton. Dore. "Plus ca change . . .". Cimaise, Paris, no. 52. March-April, 1961, p. 50. 93. Choay. Francoise. "Dada. Neo-Dada et Rauschenberg". Art International, Zurich, vol. 5. no. 8. October 20. 1961. p. 82. 94. Ashton, Dore. "Rauschenberg" s 34 Illustrations for Dante's Inferno", Metro, Milan, no. 2,  p. 52. 95. Cage, John. "On Robert Rauschenberg, Artist and his Work", Metro Milan, no. 2,  p. 36. 96. Dorfles, Gillo. "Rauschenberg, or Obsolescence Defeated", Metro, Milan, no. 2,  p. 32. 97. Seitz, William C. "Assemblage: Problems and Issues", Art International, Zurich, vol. 6, no. 1, February, 1962. 98. Alloway, Lawrence. "Assembling a World between Art and Life", The Second Coming, New York, vol. 1. no. 4, June, 1962. JAMES ROSE>Ql~IST Reviews 99. G. R. S. [G. R. Swenson]. "Exhibition at Green Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 60, February, 1962, p. 20. 100. L. C. [Lawrence Campbell]. "Exhibition at Roko Gallery", Art News, New York, vol. 61, March, 1962, p. 54. 101. S. T. [Sidney Tillim]. "Exhibition at Green Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 36, March, 1962, p. 46. Articles 102. "The Growing Cult of Marilyn", Life, New York, vol. 54, no. 4, January 25, 1963, p. 89-91. 103. Glusker, Irwin. "What Next in Art", Horizon, New York, vol. 5, no. 1, 1963. ANDY WARHOL Statements 104. "New Talent USA: Prints and Drawings", Art in America, New York, vol. 50, no. 1, 1962, p. 42. Exhibition Catalogues and Reviews 105. Stanton, Suzy. On Warhol's "Campbell's Soup Can", New York, Stable Gallery, 1962. 106. G. R. S. [G. R. Swenson]. "Exhibition at Stable Gallery", Art News, New- York, vol. 61, November, 1962, p. 15. 107. D. J. [Donald Judd]. "Exhibition at Stable Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 37, January, 1963, p. 49. 108. Fried, Michael. "New York Letter", Art International, Ziirich, vol. 6, no. 10, December, 1962, p. 56-57. Artieles 109. Ferebee, Ann. "Packaging: Portrait of a Soup Can", Industrial Design. New York, vol. 9, no. 9, 1962. STAFF Director Secretary Curator Associate Curator Assistant Curator Public Affairs Membership Registrar Conservation Photography T '--•:■— .a : M. }'■;;•■;■ Cynthia Fay Lawrence Alloway Louise Averill Svendsen Daniel Robbins Evelyn von Ripper Sally McLean Arlene B. Dellis Orrin Riley and Saul Fui r s te : n Robert E. Mates Business Administrator Administrative Assistant Office Manager Glenn H. Easton, Jr. I iola H. Gleason Agnes R. Connolly Building Superintendent Peter G.Loggin Head Guard Geo r se J. Sat i e Exhibition : 63 2 March 14— June 12, 1963 3,000 copies of this catalogue. designed by Herbert Matter. have been printed by Sterlip Press, /nc„ New York. in March 1963 for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation on the occasion of the exhibition "Six Painters and the Objecf ••••••••••• ^^k ^^k ^Bfc ^Bfc ^Ht ^Ht ^Ht ^Ht ^Hk ^Ht ^Hk THE SOLOMOX R. GUGGEXHEIM MUSEUM 1071 FIFTH AVENUE, XEW YORK 28. N.Y.